Venezuelan Migrant Crisis: A South American Problem

Grey Reames & Jake Cash

Nicolás Maduro took over as president of Venezuela in 2013 following the death of socialist leader Hugo Chávez. Since taking over, hyperinflation, food shortages, and thinning natural resources have plagued the country. By the end of the year, Venezuela’s economy will be half of the size it was in 2013. This year alone the economy will shrink 15%.

Many Venezuelans are fleeing as the situation in the country has worsened. 3 million Venezuelans have fled in the last two decades, representing 1/10th of the countries population. However, in the last two years, an estimated 1.2 million individuals have fled. The emigration is likely to continue as confidence in the country continues to lack. A recent survey conducted by Gallup showed that 40% of the remaining population hopes to flee the country. Furthermore, 53% of Venezuelans between the ages 15 – 29 want to move away permanently.

Source: Gallup 2018 Poll

The influx of migrants from the country has generated regulation and response from neighboring countries. Colombia, where a population of 550,000 Venezuelans lived at the end of 2017 (62% increase year-over-year), said it would stop issuing the 1.5 million border-crossing cards to Venezuelans as it seeks to regulate the masses of people moving across its borders. Both Colombia and Brazil have increased military personnel at their borders as well.

Despite being welcoming to their Venezuelan neighbors, Colombia has started seeing issues related to the mass influx of refugees. 20% of migrants say Colombia is their desired destination, likely due to the country’s proximity and welcoming policies. The Colombian government allows refugees access to healthcare and, if the individual has a passport, access to schools. However, officials say the increased demand has swamped government resources. Further, crime amongst the migrant Venezuelan population has dramatically increased. Unemployment has migrants taking jobs at lower wages and forced some to turn to prostitution.

With elections in Venezuela approaching, it remains a question whether Maduro will get another chance to revitalize the decimated country.

  • What obligations, if any, do these neighboring countries have to Venezuelans? Reminder that Venezuela – formerly the wealthiest nation in Latin America – once welcomed more than 1 million Colombians in the 20th century.
  • The scale of this emigration resembles the Syrians migration to Germany and the Rohingya refugee crisis in Myanmar. Should there be a bigger focus on these types of crises and their impacts on economies?
  • If the US government is going to tighten borders and immigration controls, what alternatives should be considered to help Venezuela and its people?


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Made in Ethiopia? A Story of Chinese Outsourcing

Hawassa Industrial Park is one of many new examples sprouting all around Ethiopia of new industrialization. In a mere 2 years, the park opened and already has 1,400 locals employed. The drought ridden, landlocked African country has begun to transform itself into a more developed version of itself, and employing citizens in new clothing factories. The country has attractive qualities and reasons why the developed world would be inclined to outsource work here, including tax incentives, ultracheap labor, and infrastructure investment. Specifically, China has taken a special interest in this country and has now stepped into a sort of middle-man role for producing widely popular fashion staples. Since 2014, Ethiopia has opened three additional industrial parks alongside Hawassa, and it plans eight more by 2020.

Perhaps China is smart to get in on the outsourcing game to Ethiopia. Industrialists are exempt from income tax for the first five years in business and absolved from other taxes on importing capital goods and construction. Ethiopia as a country is able to afford this generosity largely in part because of the loans granted to them by the Chinese government.

This work has also caused many problems among the Ethiopian workers. While there are more jobs available for producing the clothes and shoes that are eventually outsourced, the working conditions are very poor. There are untrained people being yelled at and even hit to produce more products. In response, the workers end up working slower and need breaks in order to make it through the day. Many people try to quit but there just are not better options. One other option for working is shaping cow manure to produce fuel. One lucky worker ended up getting a job as a hotel receptionist. She recalled stories of workers making less many than her being abused in the workplace. The article says that as demand for product out of these factories increases, wage will too. Unfortunately, the wages are locked in at low numbers for now.

While the working conditions are not ideal, the outsourcing of production to Ethiopia has greatly helped transform farms to populated areas. While the farmers may have gotten screwed over, many people benefitted. The jobs are not ideal, but they are a form of income for citizens. There are pros and cons to this outsourcing for Ethiopia as a country, but the production cost benefits that major companies across the world receive from this method of production forces this labor.

  • Who’s responsible for the labor to be safe and well-maintained?
  • How responsible are the major companies for making sure that a production factory in Ethiopia is safely run?

Banks Pflager & Chris Dupont

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Can Rome Be Built in a Day?

Oliver Herndon & Jon Pezzi

On a sandy, barren expanse of the Saudi Arabian dessert lies the foundations for history’s most ambitious mega-city project. The policy of the Crown Prince Mohammad Bin Salman is to build a 10,230-square-mile city known as Neom, along the Red Sea coast. It’s a $500 billion project to create a commercial capitol of the Middle East to rival and complement Dubai. Because the Saudi’s dwindling resource reserves and the economy’s stability is at the whim of any fluctuation of oil prices, the Saud family is making another attempt to diversify its economy. Nearly 90% of Saudi Arabia’s export revenues are from oil sales and at the current trajectory, there is no change in sight. The  Mohammad Bin Salman’s situation is not unique to his country but a circumstance resource-rich countries all over the world face, specifically those in the Persian Gulf region. Dubbed the city of the future, Neom is to be a center for international business, manufacturing, entertainment, tourism, technology and renewable energy.

There have been several previous attempts to broaden the desert kingdom’s economic spectrum; however, all failed due to varying issues and falling oil prices. This new city would be set up as a modern metropolis, antithetical to the culture of the Wahhabi Saudi conservatives who have a tight grasp on the society.

Despite a per-capita income of nearly $60,000, Saudi Arabia suffers from one of the highest Gini coefficients in the world and an enormous youth population with 50% of the population under 25. Many of the ageing youth are unemployed, making this project as partial attempt to remedy this rising issue. Because of the low-labour requirement for resource extraction, a growing population, and a decreasing oil reserve, if Saudi Arabia wants to maintain its place as a regional power it must evolve. The whole development is under the umbrella of a plan unveiled by the Crown Prince known as Vision 2030, an attempt to transform the Gulf State’s economy. Much of the Neom’s construction and planning will be funded by the Saudi Arabian’s billion-dollar sovereign wealth fund and direct foreign investment from major banks and private equity firms.

Perhaps the largest roadblock to Saudi Arabia’s development is the cultural and religious values of the country. Many prohibitions and laws are inherently contrary to the success of an international city. Without movie theatres, alcohol, religious toleration, and fair punishments for the violation of a crime, Saudi Arabia is not an ideal investment for foreign firms and tourism. These stigmas and practices are exactly what Bin Salman is hoping to address in his utopian dream. There are many possibilities that can occur. But because of the volatility of global oil prices, political and clerical discontent, and a failing precedent for these type of projects; success is in no way guaranteed.

Bloomberg Mega Project, Business Insider Saudi Oil, City Lab Mega City, Bloomberg Graphics, Big Think Design, Meob Server

  • Is this project destined to fail like its predecessors?
  • Is a project like this possible with cultural opposition like that in Saudi Arabia?
  • Is it really possible to fill all vacancies in a megacity?
  • Is there an adequate demand or will this create the demand? Does a city’s growth need to be more organic and over time?
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The Effect of HIV Fear on Sexual Behaviors

Marshall Hespe, Sabin Nshimyumukiza

Around the world, people believe that it is very easy to contract HIV. A median person believes that a one-time unprotected sex with an HIV-positive person would result in contracting the virus for sure. However, research shows that it is not that easy to catch HIV, with the transmission rate about 0.1% per sex act, or 10% per year. This study shows there is a concerning incongruity between the presence and risk of HIV and the understanding of its fatality. Research is being conducted and needs to be further studied to see how the perceived risk of HIV is changing sexual practice and whether it is actually helping or hurting Africa.

HIV is concentrated in different regions of Africa, and perceived risk and sexual behavior has different risks and consequences throughout Africa. In areas of high prevalence, people are unfortunately view themselves as unable to avoid the disease, while people in lower risk areas are taking more considerate precautions  and perhaps over protecting themselves. The study begins to reveal how many consequences can arise from the psychological issues of HIV on and among a population.

As Africa continues to face economic and social issues, HIV can be quickly delineated as a simple health issue, but studies show the perceived risk of HIV is having detrimental and even regressive effects on the sexual practices of Africans. More care and research have to maintained if Africa wants to successfully control HIV among its populations, and more forethought has to be ascribed to the potentially negative effects of perceived risk.

Marshall Hespe, Sabin Nshimyumukiza

Kerwin, Jason, Scared Straight or Scared to Death? The Effect of Risk Beliefs on Risky Behaviors (February 9, 2018). Available at SSRN: SSRN or here

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“Plata O Pomo” – Baja California Sur

John Gaugin-Rosenthal and Matthew Mesisklis

Baja California has served as a tourist hub for decades – luxurious real estate, pristine beaches, and excessive (well-deserved) drinking characterize the area. Now, a year following the extradition of El Chapo, several factions are battling it out in hopes of claiming majority power over the fractured drug market. With El Chapo gone, an even playing field has emerged, leading to increasing violence.

Homicide rate data indicates that 2017 has been the peak of the drug war in Mexico, and its impact has proven detrimental to Mexico’s economic development. With 2100 homicide victims, Baja California is quickly losing travel appeal, putting hundreds of attendants, construction workers, and food servicers out of work. A downtick in tourism to Baja could be disastrous for the region, especially considering how sensitive tourism is to crime rates.


Local Businesses, Tourism, and Employment

The drug war takes a toll on local businesses. Bar and restaurant owners, retail shops, and family-owned tourist boutiques are often given a choice: “plata o pomo”. Either they pay a fee to the cartel and continue its operation, or suffer the consequences. This takes away from profit margins, thus impacting profitability. Furthermore, violence in the region harms larger sectors: “for every increase of 10 percentage points in homicide rates in Mexico, you see an increase in unemployment in that region of half a point,” Rios said at the Wilson Center. “Unemployment currently in Mexico is 5%, so for each 10 points of increase in the homicides rates, you see half a point extra on unemployment. That’s pretty significant.” Violence impacts firms’ productivity: staff tardiness, temporary halts in production, employee absences – all caused by drug activity and violence – severely impact productivity and overall production in major sectors. Theft, particularly in the oil industry, has impacted a once-blossoming sector. These effects pose problems to the quality of life for Baja California’s citizens as violence impacts tight-knit communities directly. The war on drugs also impacts these communities indirectly as economic struggles are far-reaching.

Note: the 9% increase (found in the article) in foreign travel can be attributed to the devastating Hurricanes which impacted Caribbean tourism and essentially eliminated a seasonal competitor.

The bar graph below displays ‘resilient’ and ‘sensitive’ sectors. Those on the left are more responsive to the increasing violence in the region. The more sensitive sectors tend to be labor-intensive. Given that Mexico’s economic production is predominantly labor-intensive, it is poised to struggle amidst the growing violence.


Brain Drain

The brain drain dominates the Mexican economy, as it does most underdeveloped economies due to a lack of financial opportunities. The intensifying violence in the region attributed to the drug war has apparently amplified the consequences of the brain drain; now, students possessing significant amounts human capital – a truly valuable economic asset – leave the country not just due to scarce opportunities, but also due to the uptick in violence. Now, students also leave in hopes of finding a safe haven.

The cartel landscape has changed severely in recent times; the extradition of El Chapo has seemingly vacated a spot at the top of the order of power and it has several drug factions battling one another over territory and profit. As the issue intensifies and continues to develop, the Mexican economy – the oil, tourism, and retail industries in particular – will be negatively impacted and will face several challenges to growth. In terms of economic development, the increasingly struggling economy will severely impact the quality of life (access to schools, disposable income, safety, real estate value…etc.).

Discussion Questions:

  • How will the war on drugs impact FDI?
  • How will the increasingly dangerous cartel activity impact economic development (education, health…etc.)?
  • How will the drug war impact the political landscape of Mexico, and how will this translate to economics?
  • Will 2018 see a new peak in cartel violence?


Decriminalization to aid anti-addiction efforts:

Rolling Stone: In an effort to curb violence which originally peaked in 2015, mexican legilators have pushed to make small amounts (up to 5 grams) not carry a legal repurcussion. Although this was marketed as a medical issue, meaning addicts should wean themselves off using small doses, this also means Wealthy Americans like can now use small amounts of narcotics while on vacation, which poses a problem that might entangle tourists in the drug war.

Business Insider and CNN for a Timeline

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Remittance Map

The Pew Research Center provides a fascinating interactive map on international remittances. The default is set for flows to and from the US, but you can reset to look at other countries. The underlying data are from the World Bank 2016 Bilateral Remittance Matrix. As an example, here is a static map for the Philippines. On the web site you can click on an individual country to find out how much goes from it to the Philippines. Saudi Arabia, for example, accounted for $3.5 billion and other Gulf states (especially the UAE) for another $6.0 bil. Any shock to that region would have an immediate impact.

For many countries remittances are modest. Not so the Philippines, where they account for about 10% of nominal GDP. From another direction, in 2016 exports were $43 bil, imports $78 bil for a goods trade balance of $35 bil. Add in a surplus in services of US$7 bil – lots of educated, English-speaking Filipinos make it sensible to locate call centers there – and the overall balance is $28 bil. So that entire amount can be financed by remittances without needing to borrow US$ from global financial markets. In a good year.

A post earlier this term (or maybe from last term’s class) highlighted Jamaica as another remittance economy. Are there others? – Mexico? India? Morocco? The data may be of low quality, but this is a reminder that developing economies are varied!

$31,145,000,000 in remittances was sent to Philippines from other countries in 2016

Here is a “live” map but it’s a bit klutzy – I can’t adjust the caption size.

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To Modernize the “Chilean Miracle”

John Ahn and Chase Wonderlic

Acclaimed as the economic model for Neoliberal reform in Latin America, Chile’s economy has experienced remarkable growth in the past few decades (Hojman, 73). Despite a complex international commodities market and the frequency of external shocks, the country’s long held tradition of democratic political system sets the country apart relative to the region. However, a recent report last month (January 2018) by the OECD and ECLAC argue that Chile’s stable and open economy will no longer be enough to sustain business development. Despite the country’s increased participation in global value chains and diversification of exports, a limited knowledge base and stagnating productivity concentrates economic opportunity to only a few firms and activities (UNCTAD). The organizations urge the country to leverage today’s global production revolution by transitioning beyond its mining-focused economy to renew its relationship between government, business, and society (UNCTAD).

While acknowledging Chile’s relatively high annual average growth rate and sound macroeconomic management, the organizations observe stagnating total factor productivity (TFP) since the 1990s. The unchanging productivity is primarily due to the country’s concentration in the mining sector, which has had declining TFP every year for the past 25 years and composes 55% of Chilean exports (UNCTAD). Compared to the rest of the countries in the OECD, large firms in Chile innovate considerably less and account for merely 57% of total business research and development compared to Germany, where large firms account for over 85% of business R&D (UNCTAD). Chile has one of the overall lowest rates of R&D of the OECD with the private sector’s contribution being 33%, significantly below the OECD average of 68% (UNCTAD).

Chile is by far, the most unequal economy in the OECD (Bloomberg and OECD)

Chile’s impressive economic performance is manifested in several measures but perhaps most striking is its position as the sole South American country to be a member of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)–an intergovernmental organization composed of the world’s most powerful economic powers. Yet, beneath the country’s many distinctions, Chile has sustained severe inequality through extremely high income gaps between the haves and the have-nots (Atria). According to the World Bank, Chile is the 18th most unequal country globally and is by far, the most unequal economy in the OECD. The social inequities have also been persistent throughout time with a Gini coefficient of approximately 0.52 for the last 25 years. (Atal). There has been increasing literature in the past decade that attempts to disseminate the vast disparities in Chile’s income distribution, however, a consensus on how to target the country’s bottom quintile is far from being reached.

Among the measures proposed by the OECD and ECLAC for Chile is to modernize its public institutions, enable long-term financing for strategic investment, and consolidate progress made in articulating agendas for production while highlighting the need for reliable Internet connection (UNCTAD). These targeted policies will certainly enhance business development while promoting a pro-innovation mindset for Chile’s private sector—particularly during the supposed unique window of opportunity of the country’s current momentum. However, in the context of developing countries achieving economic development that reaches beyond growth, what are the possible trade-offs Chile has when considering the OECD’s report? Is Chile’s case an example of the constraints countries may have in improving human welfare in a world consumed by attaining economic growth?


  • “Journal Of Interamerican Studies And World Affairs “Poverty and Inequality in Chile: Are Democratic Politics and Neoliberal Economics Good for You?””. Accessed 15 Feb. 2018.

  • “Chile can avoid the middle-income trap by modernizing its economic model – new report”. Accessed 15 Feb. 2018.

  • “Elites, the Tax System and Inequality in Chile”. Accessed 19 Feb. 2018.

  • “Income Inequality and the Tax System in Chile”. Accessed 19 Feb. 2018.

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    Water Scarcity and Stella Artois

    Although access to clean drinking water isn’t of concern for most of the developed world, there are currently 2.1 billion people (or just over a quarter of the world’s population) that lack access to safely managed drinking water services. Of these 2.1 billion people, 844 million do not have access to any basic drinking water service (World Bank). What results from this are hundreds of thousands of deaths every year that could’ve been easily prevented through the successful efficient allocation of this basic resource. Not only this, but not having easily obtainable clean water negatively impacts key features of developing countries including agriculture, manufacturing, and job creation.

    LOS ANGELES, CA – DECEMBER 14: Actor Matt Damon on set on December 14, 2016 in Los Angeles, California. (Photo by Christopher Polk/Getty Images)

    As a result, the lack of a consistent clean water supply is greatly impacting developing countries’ abilities to facilitate economic growth. Besides directly effecting the health of both a nation’s citizens and industries that rely on clean water, this resource’s scarcity can lead to much more detrimental and long-lasting effects on a developing nation. Education, for instance, has been positively associated with access to clean water as many families without easy access to clean water are forced to send their children on multi-hour journeys everyday just to find the valuable resource. What this then results in is a dramatic decrease in the population of children actively receiving education in these water-scarce areas. It is for this reason that many socially-conscious companies, like Stella Artois, are actively attempting to aid the developing nations in which this issue is prevalent.

    In Sunday’s Super Bowl, viewers witnessed a series of commercials dedicated to convincing audiences that a given company is ‘doing good.’ One such commercial, and effort, in particular connected to the issue of clean water in developing countries. Stella Artois and their commercial spokesperson Matt Damon announced a new program in which Stella Artois will donate money to clean water causes because, in Damon’s own words, “millions of people in the developing world walk up to 6 hours per day for water.” Stella Artois, now, is offering the opportunity to help provide sanitary water for such people. The company claims that by buying a limited edition Stella Artois Chalice, supporters can provide “5 years of clean water”.

    Further investigating into the program shows that what Stella Artois really is doing is taking the cost of the chalice and spreading it out. They offer three different chalice options: The Mexico Chalice, the India Chalice, and the Philippines Chalice. Each glass comes with a price tag of $13, and of that $13, $3.13 are donated to, where the real positive change is made. Damon, a founder of along with friend Gary White, is looking to help these specific countries via this initiative. The company boasts amazing success, particularly via their New Ventures Fund, which claims that, given donations and current expansion and innovations, 7.4 million people will gain access to clean water by 2024.

    Of course, Stella Artois and made a substantial investment in gaining Super Bowl commercial space. That benefits of that investment for developing countries, however, will likely far outweigh the financial costs of its production.

    • What other initiatives are there similar to this one to help developing countries?
    • Are companies responsible for helping with issues such as this one? Or, are they manipulating consumers via deliberately associating their brand image with social responsibility?
    • Can you think of times when initiatives like this have failed? When they have succeeded?

    Sources:, “New Ventures – Innovative Funding For Water & Sanitation.”. Accessed 5 Feb. 2018.

    Stella Artois. Water. Accessed 5 Feb. 2018.

    World Bank, Water. Accessed 5 Feb. 2018.

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    Nordic Countries Lead the Way in Assisting Developing Nations

    Jake Cash and Grey Reames

    According to a new report from the Center for Global Development, the Nordic Countries Denmark, Sweden, and Finland top this year’s Commitment to Development Index, which is an annual ranking of the wealthiest countries in the world and how well they are helping those in developing countries through their policies. The index takes seven measures into consideration, and these are aid, finance, technology, trade, environment, security, and migration. Along with these measures, they make adjustments based on the size of the country’s economy, measured through GDP.

    Flags of Nordic Countries, retrieved from

    The top country for aid and security was Denmark, which spends 0.75 percent of its national income towards aid efforts. Norway and Luxembourg spend a larger share of their national income towards aid, but Denmark is ranked higher in the index because their spending, all things considered, is more effective. In terms of finance, Finland, Denmark, and Norway are the top three countries according to the index, meaning that they have the best government policies to promote transparency and direct investment into developing countries. According to the report, direct investment is the best way to help a developing nation’s infrastructure, transportation, and energy.

    While the Nordic Countries rise to the occasion, the United States seems to be falling behind in the Commitment to Development Index. The US is ranked 23rd out of 27 overall, and within the metric for environmental help the US is 24th out of 27. These rankings are expected to keep dropping as well following the United States’ withdrawal from the Paris Climate Agreement. Not that the United States is doing nothing, in fact the US donates more in absolute terms than any other country, but the donations only come out to 0.18 percent of its national income. This puts the US in 22nd out of the 27 countries in the index when measuring the ratio of donations to income. Even though only a select few countries have managed to meet the 1970 UN goal of 0.7 percent of national income going towards donations, the United States falls terribly short of this metric.

    The future doesn’t look bright for the United States’ future in these rankings either. Just earlier this year, President Trump signed an executive order banning Washington from helping pay women in developing countries for birth control, abortion, and family planning education. Quickly following this decision, The Netherlands created an international fund to help offset the impending withdrawal of US funding. These backwards steps by the United States will likely drag the US even further down in the index, and the response from The Netherlands will undoubtedly keep them high in the rankings.

    This Index is not 100 percent accurate in its rankings, but it does a fairly good job of showing what certain countries are excelling at and what certain countries could improve upon. Clearly, the Nordic countries are a pretty good example of how to move forward in terms of aid and development. If the United States would follow in their wake, it would very likely mean great improvement for developing countries considering the absolute size of the US economy. The Nordic countries can only do so much with their limited resources, but the example they’re setting for the rest of the world can help far more in the coming years.

    • How should the United States move forward?
    • Is it possible for the United States to do as well as the Nordic Countries in these metrics given the extreme size difference?
    • Is the UN target of 0.7 percent of GDP going towards aid a realistic target? How could this target be improved?

    Source: Nordic Countries Most Committed to Development – Gaby Galvin, USNews

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    Cape Town’s Water Crisis

    Chandless and Piantoni

    In July 2010 the United Nations General Assembly recognized water and sanitation as a human right. Without clean water it is impossible to achieve the Sustainable Development Goal of Health or to be able to break the cycle of poverty. This has been the case for Sub-Saharan Africa for a long time. The United Nations estimated that Sub-Saharan Africa wastes 40 billion hours per year collecting water.

    South Africa is now in the spotlight, following Cape Town’s announcement that it will be the world’s first major city to run out of water. Water is expected to reach critical level on April 12, ominously named “Day Zero.” On this day, authorities will shut off all communal taps, forcing people to go to official water points, that will be guarded by security forces, to receive a maximum of 25 liters (6.6 gallons) of water per day. To put this in perspective, Americans on average use between 80 and 100 gallons every day. Hospitals and the most popular tourist areas will be excluded from the water shut-off, and special measures will be taken to ensure that schools have the water they need.

    Image: Cape Town Drought

    The South African government has issued official recommendations for Cape Town citizens in preparation for “Day 0,” but has also begun work on projects they hope will allow the city to avoid ever reaching that day. Of the seven projects that are underway, six of them are behind schedule, and not a single one is more than 60% complete.  If this continues, not a single one of the much needed projects will be completed when the water is shut off.  South African business men are planning to capitalize on the water shortage by shipping in water from around the country for a high price. If the South African government does not find a way to improve access to water, the current situation in Cape Town may be just a taste of what is to come over the next decade.

    How did this happen? Enormous population growth in the last ~20 years, and a terribly long drought that climate experts say “only happens once in a millenium”. Rain in the last three years have been extremely scarce and not enough for the limited number of dams in the country to supply potable water. Additionally, government investment in water supply has been decreasing significantly since the 1980s:

    graph of south africa's water investment

    Officials announced on February 1st of this year that residents could use a maximum of 13.2 gallons of drinking water per day, in hopes to push “Day Zero” as further as possible and hope rain would increase in the meantime. However, over 60% of residents have not complied with the restrictions, and it is very hard to keep track of the water usage. This is an example of the “Tragedy of the Commons”, where residents act independently and do not care about the common good.

    • How can the world community help South Africa, as well as other parts of Sub-Saharan Africa?
    • What lessons can be learned so that this does not happen in the future?
    • What mistakes did the South African government make that led to the current state of crisis?

    Sources: Time, NBC News, The Water Project, and BBC News / Africa.

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