Radical Militants pose Roadblocks to Development

Chase Wonderlic & John Ahn

The extremist rebel group Boko Haram has been operating in French West Africa since the beginning of the twenty-first century. In this time, the group has wrought death and destruction in the region, culminating in a major paramilitary insurgency in 2009. In particular, northern Cameroon and northeastern Nigeria have become hotbeds for Boko Haram’s terrifying brand of violence and oppression. Though the United States and its allies have intervened with drone reconnaissance and troops on the ground, these countries have been suffering from more than a restriction of freedom. A real, lasting impact of Boko Haram’s presence in poor African countries is stunted development in health, agriculture, and education sectors.

In northeastern Nigeria alone, Boko Haram has destroyed about 788 health facilities such as clinics and humanitarian camps. In the Borno province, 48 health workers (many international volunteers) were killed and over 250 were left injured from violent encounters with the radical insurgency. The spread of extremism has created a brain drain in the health sector of critically impoverished areas: Borno has lost nearly 35% of its healthcare professionals to other parts of Nigeria. Thus, the part of the country most affected by the crisis is the part left most helpless.

Similarly, the state of agriculture is affected by the wartime conditions. In peace, Cameroonian farmers could work their land and provide for their communities with relative plenitude. Now, Boko Haram militants have overrun these same rural towns and farmers have fled as refugees. Millions of people, displaced from the sources of their food, are struggling to relocate their livelihoods to safer areas. Fortunately, the UN Food and Agriculture Organization plans to donate supplies of additional seed to the countries of West Africa that now need to up production in the wake of the mass displacement. This issue, nevertheless, is far from resolved as long as Boko Haram squanders arable land.

Finally and most poignantly, Boko Haram has disrupted the state of education in villages that are just gaining momentum in the global campaign for literacy and primary school attendance. The group’s position against women in the classroom has put young girls and female instructors at risk. The governments of Nigeria and Cameroon pledge to protect their schools, but people in affected areas worry that schools will become literal battlegrounds.

  • Should the international community intervene in civil wars on the basis of development?
  • Is the War on Terror better understood as a War for Development?
  • How can the developing world prepare for the devastating consequences of violence?

Works Cited:

“‘They Set the Classrooms on Fire’ | Attacks on Education in Northeast Nigeria.” Human Rights Watch, 6 June 2017.

Becomes the New Frontline in Boko Haram War.” IRIN, 27 June 2017.

Felix Abrahams, et al. “How Boko Haram Is Devastating Health Services in North-East Nigeria.” The Conversation, 27 Mar. 2018.

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Durum Wheat and Crop Varieties – Making the Difference?

Crop varieties and genetic modifications have been in existence for years, but that doesn’t mean that advancements are not still in progress and still making real change. In northern Africa and other parts of the world, particularly those near the equator, agriculture struggles because of an inability to support growth during times of high heat. However, crop modifications are helping alleviate those struggles by allowing farmers the opportunity to grow crops they otherwise would have been unable to produce. A new strain of Durum wheat is one such example.

Photograph: Filippo Bassi/Icarda

The new strain, created by the International Center for Research in Dry Areas (ICARDA), can survive in extremely hot temperatures – hotter than 100 degrees Fahrenheit. Historically, wheat has been a crop produced in colder temperatures, because those are the only conditions it used to be able to exist in. Now, thanks to the work of groups like the International Center for Research in Dry Areas, the world can maximize productivity of hotter, drier areas like those of northern Africa.

Being that human (labor) capital is a key component of economic development, new innovations in the field of crop modification play an important role in the promotion of economic growth. As time progresses and humans are forced to adapt to changing climate conditions, genetic modifications like the creation of this new strain are going to become even more important to the promotion of a healthy population. This new strain in particular will be beneficial to those areas of Sub-Saharan Africa and other extreme-heat regions in which agriculture is typically hindered by the climate.

With all the benefits that these genetic crop modifications can have there are still aspects of the process and its results that have people justifiably worried about potential negative effects of the food. Besides the scientifically disputed long-term health effects of consuming genetically modified crops, there are an assortment of other negative externalities to consider when discussing their benefit. Of these include the rise in population of insecticide-immune bugs, a reduction of environmental biodiversity and the fact that poor farmers can’t harvest new seeds from old crops. For all these reasons and more, some people are questionable about just how big a role genetically modified crops should play in our ever-evolving future. For now, though, the tangible difference that their implementation is making in areas like Sub-Saharan Africa make them a necessary part of the sustainable development in places where agriculture is not always easy.

Works Cited

“10 Problems Genetically Modified Foods Are Already Causing.” Listverse, 22 June 2013.

“New Durum and Spring Wheat Varieties Perfect for North Dakota, Montana.” Dakota Farmer, 21 Nov. 2017.

Wheat in Heat: The “Crazy Idea” That Could Combat Food Insecurity. Global Development | The Guardian. Accessed 27 Mar. 2018.


NOTE: The ICARDA website indicates this is not a GMO but rather the result of standard selective crop breeding. These are not hybrids, they can be replanted. That’s a core component of the strategy of CGIAR institutions, because otherwise new varieties would be of little use to poor farmers, as one of the comments below indicates.

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Venezuelan Migrant Crisis: A South American Problem

Grey Reames & Jake Cash

Nicolás Maduro took over as president of Venezuela in 2013 following the death of socialist leader Hugo Chávez. Since taking over, hyperinflation, food shortages, and thinning natural resources have plagued the country. By the end of the year, Venezuela’s economy will be half of the size it was in 2013. This year alone the economy will shrink 15%.

Many Venezuelans are fleeing as the situation in the country has worsened. 3 million Venezuelans have fled in the last two decades, representing 1/10th of the countries population. However, in the last two years, an estimated 1.2 million individuals have fled. The emigration is likely to continue as confidence in the country continues to lack. A recent survey conducted by Gallup showed that 40% of the remaining population hopes to flee the country. Furthermore, 53% of Venezuelans between the ages 15 – 29 want to move away permanently.

Source: Gallup 2018 Poll

The influx of migrants from the country has generated regulation and response from neighboring countries. Colombia, where a population of 550,000 Venezuelans lived at the end of 2017 (62% increase year-over-year), said it would stop issuing the 1.5 million border-crossing cards to Venezuelans as it seeks to regulate the masses of people moving across its borders. Both Colombia and Brazil have increased military personnel at their borders as well.

Despite being welcoming to their Venezuelan neighbors, Colombia has started seeing issues related to the mass influx of refugees. 20% of migrants say Colombia is their desired destination, likely due to the country’s proximity and welcoming policies. The Colombian government allows refugees access to healthcare and, if the individual has a passport, access to schools. However, officials say the increased demand has swamped government resources. Further, crime amongst the migrant Venezuelan population has dramatically increased. Unemployment has migrants taking jobs at lower wages and forced some to turn to prostitution.

With elections in Venezuela approaching, it remains a question whether Maduro will get another chance to revitalize the decimated country.

  • What obligations, if any, do these neighboring countries have to Venezuelans? Reminder that Venezuela – formerly the wealthiest nation in Latin America – once welcomed more than 1 million Colombians in the 20th century.
  • The scale of this emigration resembles the Syrians migration to Germany and the Rohingya refugee crisis in Myanmar. Should there be a bigger focus on these types of crises and their impacts on economies?
  • If the US government is going to tighten borders and immigration controls, what alternatives should be considered to help Venezuela and its people?





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Made in Ethiopia? A Story of Chinese Outsourcing

Hawassa Industrial Park is one of many new examples sprouting all around Ethiopia of new industrialization. In a mere 2 years, the park opened and already has 1,400 locals employed. The drought ridden, landlocked African country has begun to transform itself into a more developed version of itself, and employing citizens in new clothing factories. The country has attractive qualities and reasons why the developed world would be inclined to outsource work here, including tax incentives, ultracheap labor, and infrastructure investment. Specifically, China has taken a special interest in this country and has now stepped into a sort of middle-man role for producing widely popular fashion staples. Since 2014, Ethiopia has opened three additional industrial parks alongside Hawassa, and it plans eight more by 2020.

Perhaps China is smart to get in on the outsourcing game to Ethiopia. Industrialists are exempt from income tax for the first five years in business and absolved from other taxes on importing capital goods and construction. Ethiopia as a country is able to afford this generosity largely in part because of the loans granted to them by the Chinese government.

This work has also caused many problems among the Ethiopian workers. While there are more jobs available for producing the clothes and shoes that are eventually outsourced, the working conditions are very poor. There are untrained people being yelled at and even hit to produce more products. In response, the workers end up working slower and need breaks in order to make it through the day. Many people try to quit but there just are not better options. One other option for working is shaping cow manure to produce fuel. One lucky worker ended up getting a job as a hotel receptionist. She recalled stories of workers making less many than her being abused in the workplace. The article says that as demand for product out of these factories increases, wage will too. Unfortunately, the wages are locked in at low numbers for now.

While the working conditions are not ideal, the outsourcing of production to Ethiopia has greatly helped transform farms to populated areas. While the farmers may have gotten screwed over, many people benefitted. The jobs are not ideal, but they are a form of income for citizens. There are pros and cons to this outsourcing for Ethiopia as a country, but the production cost benefits that major companies across the world receive from this method of production forces this labor.

  • Who’s responsible for the labor to be safe and well-maintained?
  • How responsible are the major companies for making sure that a production factory in Ethiopia is safely run?


Banks Pflager & Chris Dupont

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Can Rome Be Built in a Day?

Oliver Herndon & Jon Pezzi

On a sandy, barren expanse of the Saudi Arabian dessert lies the foundations for history’s most ambitious mega-city project. The policy of the Crown Prince Mohammad Bin Salman is to build a 10,230-square-mile city known as Neom, along the Red Sea coast. It’s a $500 billion project to create a commercial capitol of the Middle East to rival and complement Dubai. Because the Saudi’s dwindling resource reserves and the economy’s stability is at the whim of any fluctuation of oil prices, the Saud family is making another attempt to diversify its economy. Nearly 90% of Saudi Arabia’s export revenues are from oil sales and at the current trajectory, there is no change in sight. The  Mohammad Bin Salman’s situation is not unique to his country but a circumstance resource-rich countries all over the world face, specifically those in the Persian Gulf region. Dubbed the city of the future, Neom is to be a center for international business, manufacturing, entertainment, tourism, technology and renewable energy.

There have been several previous attempts to broaden the desert kingdom’s economic spectrum; however, all failed due to varying issues and falling oil prices. This new city would be set up as a modern metropolis, antithetical to the culture of the Wahhabi Saudi conservatives who have a tight grasp on the society.

Despite a per-capita income of nearly $60,000, Saudi Arabia suffers from one of the highest Gini coefficients in the world and an enormous youth population with 50% of the population under 25. Many of the ageing youth are unemployed, making this project as partial attempt to remedy this rising issue. Because of the low-labour requirement for resource extraction, a growing population, and a decreasing oil reserve, if Saudi Arabia wants to maintain its place as a regional power it must evolve. The whole development is under the umbrella of a plan unveiled by the Crown Prince known as Vision 2030, an attempt to transform the Gulf State’s economy. Much of the Neom’s construction and planning will be funded by the Saudi Arabian’s billion-dollar sovereign wealth fund and direct foreign investment from major banks and private equity firms.

Perhaps the largest roadblock to Saudi Arabia’s development is the cultural and religious values of the country. Many prohibitions and laws are inherently contrary to the success of an international city. Without movie theatres, alcohol, religious toleration, and fair punishments for the violation of a crime, Saudi Arabia is not an ideal investment for foreign firms and tourism. These stigmas and practices are exactly what Bin Salman is hoping to address in his utopian dream. There are many possibilities that can occur. But because of the volatility of global oil prices, political and clerical discontent, and a failing precedent for these type of projects; success is in no way guaranteed.

Bloomberg Mega Project, Business Insider Saudi Oil, City Lab Mega City, Bloomberg Graphics, Big Think Design, Meob Server

  • Is this project destined to fail like its predecessors?
  • Is a project like this possible with cultural opposition like that in Saudi Arabia?
  • Is it really possible to fill all vacancies in a megacity?
  • Is there an adequate demand or will this create the demand? Does a city’s growth need to be more organic and over time?
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The Effect of HIV Fear on Sexual Behaviors

Marshall Hespe, Sabin Nshimyumukiza

Around the world, people believe that it is very easy to contract HIV. A median person believes that a one-time unprotected sex with an HIV-positive person would result in contracting the virus for sure. However, research shows that it is not that easy to catch HIV, with the transmission rate about 0.1% per sex act, or 10% per year. This study shows there is a concerning incongruity between the presence and risk of HIV and the understanding of its fatality. Research is being conducted and needs to be further studied to see how the perceived risk of HIV is changing sexual practice and whether it is actually helping or hurting Africa.

HIV is concentrated in different regions of Africa, and perceived risk and sexual behavior has different risks and consequences throughout Africa. In areas of high prevalence, people are unfortunately view themselves as unable to avoid the disease, while people in lower risk areas are taking more considerate precautions  and perhaps over protecting themselves. The study begins to reveal how many consequences can arise from the psychological issues of HIV on and among a population.

As Africa continues to face economic and social issues, HIV can be quickly delineated as a simple health issue, but studies show the perceived risk of HIV is having detrimental and even regressive effects on the sexual practices of Africans. More care and research have to maintained if Africa wants to successfully control HIV among its populations, and more forethought has to be ascribed to the potentially negative effects of perceived risk.

Marshall Hespe, Sabin Nshimyumukiza

Kerwin, Jason, Scared Straight or Scared to Death? The Effect of Risk Beliefs on Risky Behaviors (February 9, 2018). Available at SSRN: SSRN or here

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“Plata O Pomo” – Baja California Sur

John Gaugin-Rosenthal and Matthew Mesisklis

Baja California has served as a tourist hub for decades – luxurious real estate, pristine beaches, and excessive (well-deserved) drinking characterize the area. Now, a year following the extradition of El Chapo, several factions are battling it out in hopes of claiming majority power over the fractured drug market. With El Chapo gone, an even playing field has emerged, leading to increasing violence.

Homicide rate data indicates that 2017 has been the peak of the drug war in Mexico, and its impact has proven detrimental to Mexico’s economic development. With 2100 homicide victims, Baja California is quickly losing travel appeal, putting hundreds of attendants, construction workers, and food servicers out of work. A downtick in tourism to Baja could be disastrous for the region, especially considering how sensitive tourism is to crime rates.



Local Businesses, Tourism, and Employment

The drug war takes a toll on local businesses. Bar and restaurant owners, retail shops, and family-owned tourist boutiques are often given a choice: “plata o pomo”. Either they pay a fee to the cartel and continue its operation, or suffer the consequences. This takes away from profit margins, thus impacting profitability. Furthermore, violence in the region harms larger sectors: “for every increase of 10 percentage points in homicide rates in Mexico, you see an increase in unemployment in that region of half a point,” Rios said at the Wilson Center. “Unemployment currently in Mexico is 5%, so for each 10 points of increase in the homicides rates, you see half a point extra on unemployment. That’s pretty significant.” Violence impacts firms’ productivity: staff tardiness, temporary halts in production, employee absences – all caused by drug activity and violence – severely impact productivity and overall production in major sectors. Theft, particularly in the oil industry, has impacted a once-blossoming sector. These effects pose problems to the quality of life for Baja California’s citizens as violence impacts tight-knit communities directly. The war on drugs also impacts these communities indirectly as economic struggles are far-reaching.

Note: the 9% increase (found in the article) in foreign travel can be attributed to the devastating Hurricanes which impacted Caribbean tourism and essentially eliminated a seasonal competitor.

The bar graph below displays ‘resilient’ and ‘sensitive’ sectors. Those on the left are more responsive to the increasing violence in the region. The more sensitive sectors tend to be labor-intensive. Given that Mexico’s economic production is predominantly labor-intensive, it is poised to struggle amidst the growing violence.


Brain Drain

The brain drain dominates the Mexican economy, as it does most underdeveloped economies due to a lack of financial opportunities. The intensifying violence in the region attributed to the drug war has apparently amplified the consequences of the brain drain; now, students possessing significant amounts human capital – a truly valuable economic asset – leave the country not just due to scarce opportunities, but also due to the uptick in violence. Now, students also leave in hopes of finding a safe haven.

The cartel landscape has changed severely in recent times; the extradition of El Chapo has seemingly vacated a spot at the top of the order of power and it has several drug factions battling one another over territory and profit. As the issue intensifies and continues to develop, the Mexican economy – the oil, tourism, and retail industries in particular – will be negatively impacted and will face several challenges to growth. In terms of economic development, the increasingly struggling economy will severely impact the quality of life (access to schools, disposable income, safety, real estate value…etc.).

Discussion Questions:

  • How will the war on drugs impact FDI?
  • How will the increasingly dangerous cartel activity impact economic development (education, health…etc.)?
  • How will the drug war impact the political landscape of Mexico, and how will this translate to economics?
  • Will 2018 see a new peak in cartel violence?


Decriminalization to aid anti-addiction efforts:

Rolling Stone: In an effort to curb violence which originally peaked in 2015, mexican legilators have pushed to make small amounts (up to 5 grams) not carry a legal repurcussion. Although this was marketed as a medical issue, meaning addicts should wean themselves off using small doses, this also means Wealthy Americans like can now use small amounts of narcotics while on vacation, which poses a problem that might entangle tourists in the drug war.

Business Insider and CNN for a Timeline

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Remittance Map

The Pew Research Center provides a fascinating interactive map on international remittances. The default is set for flows to and from the US, but you can reset to look at other countries. The underlying data are from the World Bank 2016 Bilateral Remittance Matrix. As an example, here is a static map for the Philippines. On the web site you can click on an individual country to find out how much goes from it to the Philippines. Saudi Arabia, for example, accounted for $3.5 billion and other Gulf states (especially the UAE) for another $6.0 bil. Any shock to that region would have an immediate impact.

For many countries remittances are modest. Not so the Philippines, where they account for about 10% of nominal GDP. From another direction, in 2016 exports were $43 bil, imports $78 bil for a goods trade balance of $35 bil. Add in a surplus in services of US$7 bil – lots of educated, English-speaking Filipinos make it sensible to locate call centers there – and the overall balance is $28 bil. So that entire amount can be financed by remittances without needing to borrow US$ from global financial markets. In a good year.

A post earlier this term (or maybe from last term’s class) highlighted Jamaica as another remittance economy. Are there others? – Mexico? India? Morocco? The data may be of low quality, but this is a reminder that developing economies are varied!

$31,145,000,000 in remittances was sent to Philippines from other countries in 2016

Here is a “live” map but it’s a bit klutzy – I can’t adjust the caption size.

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To Modernize the “Chilean Miracle”

John Ahn and Chase Wonderlic

Acclaimed as the economic model for Neoliberal reform in Latin America, Chile’s economy has experienced remarkable growth in the past few decades (Hojman, 73). Despite a complex international commodities market and the frequency of external shocks, the country’s long held tradition of democratic political system sets the country apart relative to the region. However, a recent report last month (January 2018) by the OECD and ECLAC argue that Chile’s stable and open economy will no longer be enough to sustain business development. Despite the country’s increased participation in global value chains and diversification of exports, a limited knowledge base and stagnating productivity concentrates economic opportunity to only a few firms and activities (UNCTAD). The organizations urge the country to leverage today’s global production revolution by transitioning beyond its mining-focused economy to renew its relationship between government, business, and society (UNCTAD).

While acknowledging Chile’s relatively high annual average growth rate and sound macroeconomic management, the organizations observe stagnating total factor productivity (TFP) since the 1990s. The unchanging productivity is primarily due to the country’s concentration in the mining sector, which has had declining TFP every year for the past 25 years and composes 55% of Chilean exports (UNCTAD). Compared to the rest of the countries in the OECD, large firms in Chile innovate considerably less and account for merely 57% of total business research and development compared to Germany, where large firms account for over 85% of business R&D (UNCTAD). Chile has one of the overall lowest rates of R&D of the OECD with the private sector’s contribution being 33%, significantly below the OECD average of 68% (UNCTAD).

Chile is by far, the most unequal economy in the OECD (Bloomberg and OECD)

Chile’s impressive economic performance is manifested in several measures but perhaps most striking is its position as the sole South American country to be a member of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)–an intergovernmental organization composed of the world’s most powerful economic powers. Yet, beneath the country’s many distinctions, Chile has sustained severe inequality through extremely high income gaps between the haves and the have-nots (Atria). According to the World Bank, Chile is the 18th most unequal country globally and is by far, the most unequal economy in the OECD. The social inequities have also been persistent throughout time with a Gini coefficient of approximately 0.52 for the last 25 years. (Atal). There has been increasing literature in the past decade that attempts to disseminate the vast disparities in Chile’s income distribution, however, a consensus on how to target the country’s bottom quintile is far from being reached.

Among the measures proposed by the OECD and ECLAC for Chile is to modernize its public institutions, enable long-term financing for strategic investment, and consolidate progress made in articulating agendas for production while highlighting the need for reliable Internet connection (UNCTAD). These targeted policies will certainly enhance business development while promoting a pro-innovation mindset for Chile’s private sector—particularly during the supposed unique window of opportunity of the country’s current momentum. However, in the context of developing countries achieving economic development that reaches beyond growth, what are the possible trade-offs Chile has when considering the OECD’s report? Is Chile’s case an example of the constraints countries may have in improving human welfare in a world consumed by attaining economic growth?


  • “Journal Of Interamerican Studies And World Affairs “Poverty and Inequality in Chile: Are Democratic Politics and Neoliberal Economics Good for You?””. Accessed 15 Feb. 2018.

  • “Chile can avoid the middle-income trap by modernizing its economic model – new report”. Accessed 15 Feb. 2018.

  • “Elites, the Tax System and Inequality in Chile”. Accessed 19 Feb. 2018.

  • “Income Inequality and the Tax System in Chile”. Accessed 19 Feb. 2018.

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    Water Scarcity and Stella Artois

    Although access to clean drinking water isn’t of concern for most of the developed world, there are currently 2.1 billion people (or just over a quarter of the world’s population) that lack access to safely managed drinking water services. Of these 2.1 billion people, 844 million do not have access to any basic drinking water service (World Bank). What results from this are hundreds of thousands of deaths every year that could’ve been easily prevented through the successful efficient allocation of this basic resource. Not only this, but not having easily obtainable clean water negatively impacts key features of developing countries including agriculture, manufacturing, and job creation.

    LOS ANGELES, CA – DECEMBER 14: Actor Matt Damon on set on December 14, 2016 in Los Angeles, California. (Photo by Christopher Polk/Getty Images)

    As a result, the lack of a consistent clean water supply is greatly impacting developing countries’ abilities to facilitate economic growth. Besides directly effecting the health of both a nation’s citizens and industries that rely on clean water, this resource’s scarcity can lead to much more detrimental and long-lasting effects on a developing nation. Education, for instance, has been positively associated with access to clean water as many families without easy access to clean water are forced to send their children on multi-hour journeys everyday just to find the valuable resource. What this then results in is a dramatic decrease in the population of children actively receiving education in these water-scarce areas. It is for this reason that many socially-conscious companies, like Stella Artois, are actively attempting to aid the developing nations in which this issue is prevalent.

    In Sunday’s Super Bowl, viewers witnessed a series of commercials dedicated to convincing audiences that a given company is ‘doing good.’ One such commercial, and effort, in particular connected to the issue of clean water in developing countries. Stella Artois and their commercial spokesperson Matt Damon announced a new program in which Stella Artois will donate money to clean water causes because, in Damon’s own words, “millions of people in the developing world walk up to 6 hours per day for water.” Stella Artois, now, is offering the opportunity to help provide sanitary water for such people. The company claims that by buying a limited edition Stella Artois Chalice, supporters can provide “5 years of clean water”.

    Further investigating into the program shows that what Stella Artois really is doing is taking the cost of the chalice and spreading it out. They offer three different chalice options: The Mexico Chalice, the India Chalice, and the Philippines Chalice. Each glass comes with a price tag of $13, and of that $13, $3.13 are donated to Water.org, where the real positive change is made. Damon, a founder of Water.org along with friend Gary White, is looking to help these specific countries via this initiative. The company boasts amazing success, particularly via their New Ventures Fund, which claims that, given donations and current expansion and innovations, 7.4 million people will gain access to clean water by 2024.

    Of course, Stella Artois and Water.org made a substantial investment in gaining Super Bowl commercial space. That benefits of that investment for developing countries, however, will likely far outweigh the financial costs of its production.

    • What other initiatives are there similar to this one to help developing countries?
    • Are companies responsible for helping with issues such as this one? Or, are they manipulating consumers via deliberately associating their brand image with social responsibility?
    • Can you think of times when initiatives like this have failed? When they have succeeded?


    water.org, “New Ventures – Innovative Funding For Water & Sanitation.”. Accessed 5 Feb. 2018.

    Stella Artois. Water. Accessed 5 Feb. 2018.

    World Bank, Water. Accessed 5 Feb. 2018.

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